Our brains have small arteries that perform a unique function. Aging and high blood pressure can damage these arteries, leading to gait disturbances and dementia. This disease is known as cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). It is also known to be highly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. CSVD is highly prevalent in the elderly, even with the widespread use of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, in an aging society, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of age-related CSVD and develop therapeutic methods.